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Kemal Atatürk  (or alternatively written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha [a] till 1934, commonly described as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; [b] 1881 [c]-- 10 November 1938), was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founder of the Republic of Turkey, functioning as its very first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. His humane dictatorship undertook sweeping progressive reforms, which improved Turkey into a nonreligious, industrial nation.Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories ended up being understood as Kemalism. Due to his military and political achievements, Atatürk is regarded according to research studies as one of the best leaders of the 20th century.
Atatürk concerned prominence for his role in protecting the Ottoman Turkish success at the Battle of Gallipoli (1915) throughout World War I. Following the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, he led the Turkish National Motion, which withstood mainland Turkey's partition among the victorious Allied powers. Establishing a provisionary government in the present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he defeated the forces sent out by the Allies, hence emerging triumphant from what was later described as the Turkish War of Independence. He subsequently proceeded to abolish the decrepit Ottoman Empire and announced the structure of the Turkish Republic in its place.
As the president of the freshly formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk initiated an extensive program of political, economic, and cultural reforms with the ultimate objective of constructing a modern, progressive and secular nation-state. He made primary education free and obligatory, opening countless brand-new schools all over the nation. He also introduced the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, replacing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish females received equal civil and political rights throughout Atatürk's presidency ahead of lots of Western nations.  In particular, females were given ballot rights in local elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a couple of years later, in 1934, full universal suffrage, earlier than many other democracies in the world.
His federal government performed a policy of Turkicisation, trying to create a homogeneous and unified country. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pushed to speak click here Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and last names of minorities needed to be altered to Turkish renditions. The Turkish Parliament gave him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which indicates "Daddy of the Turks", in acknowledgment of the role he played in constructing the contemporary Turkish Republic.  He passed away on 10 November 1938 at Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, at the age of 57 he was been successful as President by his veteran Prime Minister İsmet İnönü  and was honored with a state funeral. His renowned mausoleum in Ankara, built and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his popular expression "Peace at Home, Peace worldwide".
In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which stated it The Atatürk Year on the planet and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, explaining him as "the leader of the first battle offered against manifest destiny and imperialism" and a "remarkable promoter of the sense of understanding between individuals and durable peace in between the countries of the world which he worked all his life for the advancement of harmony and cooperation in between individuals without distinction".   Atatürk is commemorated by numerous memorials and places called in his honor throughout Turkey and the world. Eleftherios Venizelos, previous Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Reward.